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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.59 No.4 pp.311-315

New Records of the Two Genera of Parasitoid Wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) from South Korea

Yeonghyeok Yu, Subin Choi1, Juhyeong Sohn, Hee-Won Han2, Hyojoong Kim*
Animal Syst. Lab., Department of Biology, Kunsan National University, Gunsan, 54150, Korea
1Lab. of Systematic Entomology, Department of Applied Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134, Korea
2Wonkwang University, Iksan, 54538, Korea
July 6, 2020 September 28, 2020 October 9, 2020


Two genera with two species of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea, Testudobracon pleuralis Ashmead 1906 and Diadromus subtilicornis Gravenhorst 1829, are reported for the first time from South Korea. Diagnosis, distribution, and illustration are provided.

한국산 미기록 기생벌 2속(벌목: 맵시벌상과)에 대한 보고

유 영혁, 최 수빈1, 손 주형, 한 희원2, 김 효중*
군산대학교 생물학과 동물계통분류학연구실
1충남대학교 응용생물학과


맵시벌상과에 속하는 Testudobracon pleuralis Ashmead, 1906, Diadromus subtilicornis Gravenhorst 1829 2속 및 2종을 한국에서 처음으로 보고한다. 본 종의 형태진단, 분포, 삽화를 수록한다.

    The superfamily Ichneumonoidea is one of the largest groups in the world, containing 44,350 species in 2,650 genera (Yu et al., 2016, Kittel, 2016, Broad et al., 2018), which is subdivided into two families, Braconidae and Ichneumonidae (Wharton et al., 1997). The two families, Braconidae and Ichneumonidae, are renowned as having plenty of parasitoid wasp species parasitizing into almost insects and some spiders, which are characterized by endoparasitism, ectoparasitism, hyperparasitism and superparasitism. Because there are many species attacking the agricultural pests, these two families traditionally have been used for biological control (Townes, 1958, Wharton et al., 1997, Abd-Rabou, 2006).

    The genus TestudobraconQuicke, 1986 belonging to the family Braconidae is recorded in South Korea for the first time. There are 16 Testudobracon species that have been reported worldwide and are mainly distributed in the Australian, East Palearctic, and Oriental regions. The species belonging to Testudobracon are parasitic on the cecidomyiid dipterans (Quicke, 1986, Yu et al., 2016, Sheeba et al., 2017) and Asphondylia, in which Testudobracon is parasitic, can be a biological controls that prevents the indiscriminate spread of Australian acacias (Kolesik et al., 2010, Sheeba et al., 2017). Thus, the presence of natural enemies increases the possibility of use as a safe control product. In this study, Testudobracon pleuralis is reported for the first time from South Korea, which has formerly been documented in China and Japan (Yu et al., 2016). The genus DiadromusWesmael, 1845 belonging to the family Ichneumonidae has been recorded 80 species worldwide. The distribution of Diadromus has a wide range of Afrotropical, Australasian, Eastern Palearctic, Europe, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceanic, Oriental, and Western Palearctic regions. Diadromus species are parasitic on the lepidopterans mainly in Tortricidae and Acrolepiidae. In particular, they are parasitic to diamondback moths, which cause serious damage to cruciferous crops, and are now used as biological controls (Tran and Takasu, 2000). Diadromus subtilicornisGravenhorst 1829 is firstly discovered in South Korea through this study. This species is distributed in Eastern Palearctic, Europe, Nearctic and Western Palearctic regions, and also has been recorded in Japan (Yu et al., 2016).

    Materials and Methods

    Materials of the ichneumonoids were collected by sweeping and Malaise trap, which were preserved in 90% ethyl alcohol for DNA and in 75% ethyl alcohol for dried specimens. The species studied are deposited in Kunsan National University (KNU). The terminology used for morphological characters follows Sharkey and Wharton (1997). For observation and photography, LEICA DMC2900 digital camera and LEICA M205 C microscope (Leica Geosystems AG) were used. Images were stacked by using Helicon software (Helicon Soft).

    Systematic Accounts

    Superfamily Ichneumonoidea Latreille, 1802 맵시벌상과

    Family Braconidae Nees, 1811 고치벌과

    Subfamily Braconinae Nees, 1811 고치벌아과

    Genus TestudobraconQuicke, 1986 혹파리살이고치벌속 (신칭)

    TestudobraconQuicke 1986: 25–27; Quicke 1987: 133.

    Generic Diagnosis

    The diagnosis for this genus was described by Sheeba et al (2017) as follows. Head transverse; face with a distinct mid longitudinal ridge dorsally; frons with a mid-longitudinal groove. Middle lobe of mesoscutum with a pair of submedial longitudinal grooves anteriorly. Notauli deeply impressed along entire length of mesoscutum. Propodeum with a complete mid longitudinal carina. Second submarginal cell of fore wing short and narrowing distally. Second metasomal tergite produced antero-ventrally and with a small area of reduced sculpture midbasally. Third to sixth metasomal tergites roundly produced posterolaterally. Sixth metasomal tergite deeply emarginated medially. Ovipositor with a pre-apical dorsal nodus and ventral serrations (Sheeba et al., 2017).

    Testudobracon pleuralisAshmead, 1906 끝검은다리고치벌 (신칭) (Fig. 1)

    Chelonogastra pleuralisAshmead, 1906 30:169-201.


    Morphology. Length of body 3.14-3.43 mm, length of forewing 3.13-3.45 mm (Fig. 1A). Head with antenna 25 segmented; covered with whitish setae (Fig. 1B), ocellus distinct; length of ocello-ocular line 0.59-0.60 times length of eye, frons and face smooth, mandible slender and dark brown, occipital carina absent (Fig. 1D). Mesosoma gloss; brown; length of mesosoma 0.35-0.36 times length of forewing, notaulus complete with setae, propodium areola absent and propodium edge with spine (Fig. 1E). Wing covered with whitish setae, parastigma groove, stigma widely with leaf shape, vein 1-SR short; r-m incompletely present; CU1a completely present, hind wing vein 2-M distinct present (Fig. 1C). Hind leg speckled; brownish, length of hind leg femur 0.76-77 times length of hind leg tibia, telotarsus darkish. Metasoma brownish; dorsal and lateral darkish speckled, length of metasoma 1.33-1.34 times length of mesosoma, dorsal carina distinct, ovipositor sharp with reddish brown and long, ovipositor sheath overall covered with yellowish setae (Fig. 1F).

    Distribution. South Korea (new), China, Japan.

    Biology. This species is parasitic to Asphondylia of Diptera and Etiella of Lepidoptera (Yu et al., 2016).

    Specimens examined. South Korea, 2♀ (KSNU): Kunsan National University, Miryongdong, Gunsan, Jeonbuk, 27. IX. 2014, Hyojoong Kim.

    Family Ichneumonidae Latreille, 1802 맵시벌과

    Subfamily Ichneumoninae Latreille, 1802 맵시벌아과

    Genus DiadromusWesmael, 1845 좀나방살이맵시벌속(신칭)

    ThyraeellaHolmgren, 1890 3(1889):341-466.

    Generic Diagnosis

    The diagnosis for this genus was described by Rousse and Simon van Noort (2013) as follows. Head with mandible bidentate, triangular and evenly narrowed towards apex, with a weak ventral flange, upper tooth twice as long as lower tooth; face transverse, wider than high; clypeus distinctly transverse, lenticular, hardly separated from face medially, its ventral margin somewhat impressed; occipital carina complete; occipital and hypostomal carinae joining at mandibular base; flagellum of female moderately enlarged and flattened beyond middle, flagellum of male without tyloids; epomia present and strong. Mesoscutum steeply elevated above pronotum; postpectal carina complete and strong; propodeum moderately short, basal half about horizontal and apical half sloping down in lateral view; carination complete and strong, spiracle quite round; fore wing with areolet pentagonal, closed, 3Rs–m non–tubular and faintly pigmented; hind wing with distal abscissa of Cu1 faint; gastrocoeli large and moderately deep; tarsal claws simple; thyridiae moderately weak but distinct, transverse and wide with interval narrow, distant from anterior margin by more than their width; hypopygium hiding base of ovipositor sheath; ovipositor very shortly projecting beyond metasomal apex (Rousse and Simon van Noort, 2013).

    Diadromus subtilicornisGravenhorst, 1829 얼굴주름맵시 벌(신칭) (Fig. 2)

    Diadromus arcticusThomson, 1891 1603-1656.

    Diadromus dolosusBerthoumieu, 1899 135-138.

    Diadromus imbellisWesmael, 1845 18(1944):1-239.

    Diadromus ustulatusHolmgren, 1890 3(1889):341-466.

    Herpestomus plutellæAshmead, 1890 12:387-451.

    Phaeogenes nigrinusBerthoumieu, 1901 320-323.

    Phaeogenes japonicusAshmead, 1906 30:169-201.


    Morphology. Length of body 4.85 mm, length of forewing 2.71 mm (Fig. 2A). Head Black; antenna 22 segmented; covered with yellowish setae (Fig. 2B), ocellus distinct; length of ocelloocular line 0.43 times length of eye, face smooth with wrinkle, malar suture nearly absent, gena concave, anterior tentorial pit large and distinct, occipital carina complete (Fig. 2D). Mesosoma black; length of mesosoma 0.42 times length of forewing, notaulus exist, epicnemial carina and postpectal carina distinct, propodium areola absent with wrinkle (Fig. 2E). Wing yellowish; overall covered with yellowish setae, third submarginal cell and third discal cell incomplete with indistinct 2M, vein rs-m indistinct (Fig. 2C). Hind leg brownish; femur and tibia half black; length of hind leg femur 0.83 times length of hind leg tibia. Metasoma brownish; petiole harden with black, length of metasoma 2.28 times length of mesosoma, metasomal tergum mottle, ovipositor blunt and upward with dark-brown (Fig. 2F).

    Distribution. South Korea (new), China, Japan, France, Hungary, Italy, Germany.

    Biology. This species is parasitic to lepidopterans in Acrolepiidae and Plutellidae (Yu et al., 2016).

    Specimens examined. South Korea, 1♀ (KSNU): Kunsan National University, Miryongdong, Gunsan, Jeonbuk, 27. IX. -16. X. 2014 (MLT), Hyojoong Kim.


    This research was supported by a grant from the Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) through Exotic Invasive Species Management Program (2018002270005) and a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR201601203), funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE). It was also supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2018R1D1A3B0 7044298).


    Habitus of Testudobracon pleuralis Ashmead, 1906: A, whole body in lateral view; B, antenna; C, forewing; D, head; E, mesosoma in dorsal view; F, ovipositor.


    Habitus of Diadromus subtilicornisGravenhorst, 1829: A, whole body in lateral view; B, antenna; C, forewing; D, head; E, mesosoma in lateral view; F, ovipositor.


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