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ISSN : 1225-0171(Print)
ISSN : 2287-545X(Online)
Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Vol.59 No.3 pp.177-183

Four Species of Crambidae (Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea) New to Korea

Jae-Cheon Sohn*, Sung-Soo Kim1, Sei-Woong Choi2
Department of Science Education, Gongju National University of Education, Gongju 32553, Korea
1Research Institute for East Asian Environment and Biology, Seoul 05236, Korea
2Department of Environmental Education, Mokpo National University, Muan 58554, Korea
April 3, 2020 June 19, 2020 July 3, 2020


Four species of Crambidae, Patania brevipennis (Inoue, 1982); Herpetogramma tominagai Yamanaka, 2003; Aethaloessa calidalis (Guenée, 1854); Anania subfumalis (Munroe et Mutuura, 1971), are reported for the first time from Korea. The genus Aethaloessa is new to the Korean fauna. Photos of external and genital features are provided for those species. Subspecies assignment and occurrence status in Korea are discussed for Aethaloessa calidalis and Anania subfumalis.

풀명나방과(나비목, 명나방상과)의 한국 4미기록종

손 재천*, 김 성수1, 최 세웅2
공주교육대학교 과학교육과
2목포대학교 환경교육과


풀명나방과의 Patania brevipennis (Inoue, 1982); Herpetogramma tominagai Yamanaka, 2003; Aethaloessa calidalis (Guenée, 1854); Anania subfumalis (Munroe et Mutuura, 1971) 등 4종을 국내 처음으로 기록한다. Aethaloessa속은 국내에서 처음으로 기록된다. 여기 기록한 종 의 외형과 생식기 사진을 제공한다. 필요한 경우, 해당 종의 아종 관계와 국내 발생 상황에 대해 논한다.

    Crambidae belonging to Pyraloidea comprise about 11,700 species in the world (Munroe and Solis, 1999). The monophyly of Crambidae is supported by multiple synapomorphies: the presence of one or two L setae on the abdominal segment IX of larvae; a praecinctorium associated with the tympanal organ; tympanal case opening anteromedially; and tympanum and conjunctivum meeting at an angle (Minet, 1982), and also molecular data (Regier et al., 2012).

    The Korean species of Crambidae were first studied by Leech (1889). Since then, there have been a total of 112 genera, 266 species of Crambidae recorded from Korea (Bae et al., 2008). Given the numbers of species known from the adjacent countries, the crambid fauna of Korea has not been exhaustively inventoried and thus many new records are still predicted. In the present study, four species of Crambidae are recorded from Korea for the first time.

    Material and methods

    All the specimens examined are deposited in three collections: GJUE – Gongju National University of Education; MPNU – Mokpo National University; and NIBR – National Institute of Biological Resources. Terms of genitalia follow Klots (1970). The “GSN” in the collecting data indicates a genitalia slide number. Plant names came from the website ‘Plant List’ (

    Systematic accounts

    Family Crambidae Latreille, 1810 풀명나방과 Subfamily Spilomelinae Guenée, 1854 Tribe Agroterini Acloque, 1897

    Genus PataniaMoore, 1888

    PataniaMoore, 1888: 209. Type species: Botys concatenalisWalker, 1866.

    NagiaWalker, 1866: 1320. Type species: Nagia desmialisWalker, 1866. Junior homonym.

    PleuroptyaMeyrick, 1890: 443. Type species: Botys aurantiacalis Fisher von Röslerstamm, [1840].

    LoxosciaWarren, 1890: 476. Type species: Botys scinisalisWalker, 1859.

    This genus has been confused with Pleuroptya in Korea. See Kirti and Gill (2007) for the relationship between Patania and Pleuroptya. There have been eight species of Patania known from Korea.

    Patania brevipennis (Inoue, 1982) 엷은무늬들명나방 (Figs. 1B, 2C, 2D)

    Pleuroptya brevipennisInoue, 1982: 342. Type locality: Japan, Akita Pref., Honjo City.

    Patania brevipennis; Nuss et al., 2020: electronic source.

    Description (Fig. 1B). Head – Vertex pale grayish yellow; frons dark-brownish gray. Labial palpus dark-brownish gray, intermixed with dark-brown scales. Antenna 2/3 as long as forewing; scape dark-brownish gray; flagellomeres pale-grayish yellow. Thorax – Patagium, tegula, and mesonotum pale-grayish yellow. Forewing length 10.1 mm, yellowish white, semitransparent; subbasal line grayish brown, weakly curved; postmedian line grayish brown, angulated at anterior 1/3, recurved in posterior 1/3; orbicular and reniform spots in discal cell small, grayish brown; terminal area broadly brownish gray; cilia pale brownish gray. Hindwing yellowish white, semitransparent; subbasal dash short, grayish brown; postmendian line convex in medial 1/3; terminal area broadly brownish gray; cilia yellowish gray. Male genitalia (Fig. 2C) – Uncus rectangular; tuba analis elongate, 3x longer than uncus. Tegumen trapezoidal. Valva elongate, narrowly round apically, setose on distal 2/3, with spiniform clasper basally; costa broadly round; sacculus 3/4 as long as ventral margin of valva, narrow. Saccus linguiform. Phallus (Fig. 2D) nearly straight, slightly broadened distally; cornutal zone scobinate, 1/4 as long as phallus.

    Material examined. 1♂, Jeonnam Prov., Jangseong-gun, Mt. Baekyangsan (N35°24', E126°52'), 23 VII 2005 (SW Choi), [GSN] SJC-1040, NIBR.

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Japan.

    Host plants. Unknown.

    Remarks. The present record represents the first occurrence of this species outside Japan.

    Tribe Herpetogrammatini Mally, Heyden, Neinheuis, Jordal et Nuss, 2019

    Genus HerpetogrammaLederer, 1863

    HerpetogrammaLederer, 1863: 430. Type species: Herpetogramma servalisLederer, 1863.

    See Nuss et al. (2020) for the synonyms of Herpetogramma.

    Herpetogramma tominagaiYamanaka, 2003 남방띠무늬들 명나방 (Figs. 1A, 2A, 2B, 2G)

    Herpetogramma tominagaiYamanaka, 2003: 226. Type locality: Japan, Okinawa Is., Gushichan.

    Description (Fig. 1A). Head – Vertex pale orange; frons pale-grayish brown, darkened distally. Labial palpus grayish brown dorsoposteriorly, white ventroanteriorly. Antenna 1/2 as long as forewing; scape pale-grayish orange; flagellomeres pale-grayish brown. Thorax – Patagium pale orange, tinged with pale-grayish brown basally; tegula and mesonotum pale orange, intermixed with pale-grayish brown scales. Forewing length 9.5-12 mm, pale-grayish orange, tinged with grayish brown beyond postmedian line; subcostal area transversely dark-grayish brown; subbasal line dark-grayish brown, curved; antemedian line dark-grayish brown, zigzagged; postmedian line present in anterior 1/3, curved in posterior half; terminal line dark brown; cilia pale-grayish brown. Hindwing palegrayish orange, intermixed with pale-brownish gray, tinged with grayish brown after postmedian line; medial bar darkgrayish brown; postmedian line dark-grayish brown, protruding on medial section; terminal line dark brown; cilia pale-grayish brown. Male genitalia (Fig. 2A) – Uncus rod-like, slightly broadened in basal 3/1, densely setose laterally. Tegumen semi-round. Valva elongate, broadened at middle, narrowlyround apically, densely setose; costa concave medially, broadly sclerotized in basal 5/6; sacculus 1/2 of ventral margin of valva, slightly broadened basally; long hair pencil in pocket present on base of valva. Phallus (Fig. 2B) nearly straight, of even width; thorny cornuti in distal 1/4 of phallus. Female genitalia (Fig. 2G) – Papillae anales short, densely setose. Apophysis posterioris short, as long as apophysis anterioris. Ductus bursae with spinulate, columnar neck at caudal 1/3, longitudinally-wrinkled in anterior 2/3. Corpus bursae long, elliptical, with microtrichia on caudal 1/4; signum on cervical area of corpus bursae, rhomboid, with transverse ridge medially.

    Material examined. 1♀, Jeonnam Prov., Muan-gun, Cheonggye-myeon, Cheongsu-ri (N34°55'45", E126°26'55", 74 m), 12 IX 2012 (PP Thein), MPNU; 2♂5♀, Jeonnam Prov., Jangheung-gun, Dae-ri, Mt. Suinsan (N34°43'16.5", E126°51'42.3", 149 m), 30 VIII 2016 (JC Sohn), GNUE/ NIBR. 1♀, Jeju Prov., Mt. Hallasan (N33°22', E126°37', 615 m), 2 IX 2006 (SK Kim), [GSN] SJC-1050, MPNU; 1♀, Jeju Prov., Namjeju-gun, Namwon-eup, Harye-ri (N33°18'56", E126°37'08", 264 m), 6 X 2007 (SW Choi), MPNU; 1♂, Jeju Prov., Jeju-si, Nohyeong-dong, Mt. Hallasan (N33°24'35", E126°29'43", 681 m), 8 IX 2010 (JS An), [GSN] SJC-1038, MPNU.

    Distribution. Korea (South), Japan.

    Host plants. Acanthaceae – Codonacanthus pauciflorus (Nees) Nees, Dicliptera chinensis (Juss.) K. D. Koenig; Amaranthaceae – Achyranthes aspera var. rubrofusa (Wight) Hook. f.; Asteraceae – Eupatorium formosanum Hayata (Yamanaka and Sasaki, 2013).

    Remarks. This species is known to be bivoltine in Japan (Yamanaka and Sasaki, 2013). However, it has been collected exclusively in fall season in Korea. Our collecting data suggest that H. tominagai occurs in southern provinces of Korea. These records are the first evidence of its occurrence outside Japan.

    Tribe Spilomelini Guenée, 1854

    Genus AethaloessaLederer, 1863

    AethaloessaLederer, 1863: 276 [key], 435. Type species: Stenia floridalis Zeller, 1852.

    Athaloessa; Snellen, 1880: 75. Misspelling.

    ChnauraLederer, 1863: 435. Type species: Syngamia octavialisWalker, 1859.

    This genus comprises three species, two of which broadly occur in the pantropical regions. Members of Aethaloessa exhibit orange-colored and brown-patterned body and wings. A common feature in the genitalia of congeners include a pair of valvae connected with each other basally, forming transverse membrane over the tegumen. Larvae of Aethaloessa are mainly leaf-rollers on Poaceae and Urticaceae (Jazen and Hallwachs, 2009;Mally et al., 2019). The genus Aethaloessa is reported for the first time from Korea.

    Aethaloessa calidalis (Guenée, 1854) 불꽃들명나방 (Figs. 1C, 2E, 2F)

    Glyphodes calidalisGuenée, 1854: 294. Type locality: India, Coromandel Coast.

    Botys witialisFelder, Felder et Rogenhofer, 1875: pl. 135, fig. 8. Type locality: Fiji.

    Hyalea fulvidalisWallengren, 1860: 174. Type locality: Tahiti.

    Syngamia aurantiacaHampson, 1912: 254. Type locality: Singapore.

    Syngamia octavialisWalker, 1859: 334. Type locality: North India, Indonesia, Sumatra.

    Syngamia tiphalisWalker, 1859: 335. Type locality: Indonesia, Sulawesi.

    Syngamia secutalisWalker, 1866: 1291. Type locality: Thailand, Indonesia, Maluku, Seram, West Papua, Misool, New Guinea.

    Botys witalis; Whalley, 1961: 106 (misspelling).

    Aethaloessa calidalis calidalis; Whalley, 1961: 106. Subspecies: India, Sri Lanka, Seychelles.

    Aethaloessa calidalis tiphalis; Whalley, 1961: 106. Subspecies: Southeast Asia, Oceanic islands.

    Description ( Fig. 1 C) . Head – Vertex brownish yellow; frons yellowish orange, glossy. Labial palpus with 1st segment pale-yellowish orange; 2nd segment dark-brown dorsoposteriorly, pale-yellowish orange ventroanteriorly and mesally; 3rd segment pale orange. Antenna 2/3 as long as forewing; scape brownish orange, sparsely intermixed with dark-brown scales; flagellomeres dark-grayish brown. Thorax – Patagium dark brown, tinged with dark orange basally; tegula dark brown; mesonotum dark brown on anterior 2/5, orange on posterior 3/5. Forewing length 7-7.8 mm, reddish orange on basal half, orange between antemedian and postmedian lines; costa broadly dark brown basally; subbasal line dark brown, curved; antemedian line dark-purplish brown, broadened on posterior half, continuous to postmedian line along dorsal margin; zone after postmedian line dark-purplish brown, with pale orange spot near costal area of postmedian line; cilia dark-brownish gray. Hindwing reddish orange on basal 1/2, orange medially; terminal zone dark-purplish brown, with medially-indented inner margin; cilia dark-brownish gray. Abdomen – Dorsum reddish orange, tinged with dark-purplish brown on tergites III and VIII-X; venter pale orange on basal half, purplish brown on distal half. Male genitalia (Fig. 2E) – Uncus vase-shaped, bifid apically, long-setose laterally, with Y-shaped sclerite ventrally; apical process digitiform, with fringed sensilla ventrally. Tegumen rectangular. Transtilla transversing over caudal 1/4 of uncus. Valva broad, with setal areas on middle and distal 1/8 of costa and along ventral margin; apex protruding in linguiform; costa broadly round, strongly convex at middle; transverse bulge present along subcostal area; sacculus complete, globulous basally, with small, digitiform process on distal 1/4 of upper margin. Saccus elongate, tapered to apex. Phallus (Fig. 2F) narrowed in distal half, slightly curved in dorsal half; vesical thorny on distal 3/4; cornuti as large and small spiniform processes and a row of dentiform sclerites.

    Material examined. 1♂, Gyeonggi Prov., Namyangju-si, Sudong-myeon, Mt. Chukryeongsan, 22 VIII 2016 (SS Kim), [GSN] SJC-1047, NIBR. 1♂, Jeonnam Prov., Mokpo-si, Okam-dong (N34°48'41.6", E126°25'41.5"), 11 X 2017 (JC Sohn), GJUE.

    Distribution. Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Oceanic islands, Australia.

    Host plants. Urticaceae – Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hussk.) Miq. (Yamanaka and Sasaki, 2013).

    Remarks. This species includes two subspecies: A. c. calidalis from India and Sri Lanka and A. c. tiphalis from Malaya to Australia. These subspecies differ in the length of the main cornutus in the phallus (shorter in A. c. calidalis) and the length of the corpus bursae in the female genitalia (longer in A. c. calidalis). The specimens collected from Korea belong to the subspecies tiphalis. The collecting dapta from Korea indicate that A. calidalis is a rare migrant.

    Subfamily Pyraustinae Meyrick, 1890 Tribe Pyraustini Meyrick, 1890

    Genus AnaniaHübner, 1823

    AnaniaHübner, 1823: 27. Type species: Pyralis guttalis Denis et Schiffermüller, 1775

    See Nuss et al. (2020) for the synonyms of Anania.

    Anania subfumalis (Munroe et Mutuura, 1971) 노랑뾰족들 명나방 (Figs. 1D, 2H)

    Tenerobotys subfumalisMunroe et Mutuura, 1971: 176. Type locality: Taiwan, Nantou Prov., near Puli, Wanta.

    Teberobotys subfumalis continentalisMunroe et Mutuura, 1971: 178. Subspecies: China, Hunan.

    Anania subfumalis; Tränkner et al., 2009: 71.

    Description (Fig. 1D). Head – Vertex white, intermixed with orange scales laterally; frons orange, tinged with white laterally. Labial palpus orange, tinged with white ventrally. Antenna 2/3 as long as forewing; scape orange, intermixed with pale orange scales; flagellomeres pale orange. Thorax – Patagium and tegula orange, mesonotum orange, tinged with pale orange posteriorly. Forewing length 7.2-9.6 mm, orange, intermixed with brownish orange scales on costal area; antemedian line dark-brownish orange, curved; postmedian line narrow, grayish brown, convex on anterior 3/4; cilia fuscous. Hindwing orange, paler anterobasally; postmedian line narrow, grayish brown, convex in anterior 2/3; cilia fuscous. Female genitalia (Fig. 2H) – Papilla analis oblique, narrow, setose. Apophysis posterioris half the length of apophysis anterioris. Area surrounding ostium broadly emarginated, strongly sclerotized, with shallow pit laterally. Ductus bursae 2.5x longer than corpus bursae, narrow except in caudal 1/5 and area near corpus bursae; caudal 1/10 sclerotized. Corpus bursae globular; signum long-elliptical, granulate, with narrow-rhomboid expansion at caudal 1/3.

    Material examined. 2♀, Jeonnam Prov., Wando-gun, Bogil-myeon, Is. Bogildo (N34°08'47", E126°64'08", 47 m), 18 IX 2008 (M. Park), NIBR/MPNU; 1♀, Jeonnam Prov., Sinan-gun, Docho-myeon, Is. Seosouido (N34°36'38", E125° 52'06", 7 m), 26 VI 2009 (SW Choi), [GSN] SJC-984, MPNU; 1♀, Jeonnam Prov., Goheung, Is. Oenarodo (N34°27'50.8", E127°28'07.6", 72 m), 14 IX 2017, MPNU.

    Distribution. Korea (new record), China (Henan, Hainan), Taiwan.

    Host plants. Unknown.

    Remarks. This species comprises two subspecies: A. s. subfumalis from Taiwan and A. s. continentalis Munroe et Mutuura from China (Munroe and Mutuura, 1971). The smaller wing expanse and the paler hindwing of the Korean specimens of A. subfumalis suggest that they belong to the subspecies continentalis, but examination of male specimens is needed to confirm the subspecific status.


    This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR201902205).


    Adults of Crambidae. A, Herpetogramma tominagai Yamanaka, male; B, Patania brevipennis (Inoue), male; C, Aethaloessa calidalis (Guenée), male; D, Anania subfumalis (Munroe et Mutuura), female. Scale bars = 5 mm.


    Genitalia of Crambidae. A, B, Herpetogramma tominagai Yamanaka, male genital capsule (A) and phallus (B); C, D, Patania brevipennis (Inoue), male genital capsule (C) and phallus (D); E, F, Aethaloessa calidalis (Guenée), male genital capsule (E) and phallus (F); G, Herpetogramma tominagai Yamanaka, female; H, Anania subfumalis (Munroe et Mutuura), female.


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